Reading is a language skill and an important factor in the learning process, because by reading learners can obtain information. Reading is one of the activities in literacy. Literacy can not be separated from the world of education. Literacy becomes a medium of learners in knowing, understanding, and applying the knowledge they get in school.
At the secondary school level (15 years of age) the reading comprehension of Indonesian students (other mathematics and science) is tested by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA). The results of research conducted by PISA in 2012 show Indonesian students are ranked 64th out of 65 countries participating in PISA with score 396 (OECD 496 average score). While the results of research conducted in 2015 shows Indonesian students are ranked 62nd. Indonesia get a score of 397 (an average score of OECD 493). In the 2015 study there were 70 countries participating in PISA.
Based on data obtained from the Central Bureau of Statistics the literacy rate for 15-19 year olds in 2010 has a percentage of 99.56%, in 2011 of 98.61%, in 2012 of 98.85%, in 2013 of 99.42%, and in 2014 99.67 %. This achievement actually shows that Indonesia has a high literacy rate. However, the challenges faced today are the low interest in reading. When compared to the results of OECD research, Indonesia always ranks lowest. In a study of 2015, Indonesia's position under Vietnam is ranked 8th and Thailand who ranked 54th. This becomes a serious issue for Indonesians in reading, because reading is the basis for acquiring the knowledge, skills and attitude of learners.
This issue requires the government to create specific strategies to increase reading interest and reading ability of learners. Implementation of the strategy is to create the School Literacy Movement developed by the Ministry of Education and Culture. School Literacy Movement has a goal to familiarize and motivate learners to want to read and write in order to cultivate manners. School Literacy Movement strengthens the movement of character development.
School Literacy Movement is the ability to access, understand, and use something intelligently through various activities, including reading, viewing, listening, writing, and / or speaking.
The School Literacy Movement is a participatory effort or activity involving the members of the school (learners, teachers, principals, education personnel, school supervisors, school committees, parent / guardians), academics, publishers, mass media, communities (community leaders who can represent exemplary, business, etc.), and stakeholders under the coordination of the Directorate General of Primary and Secondary Education of the Ministry of Education and Culture.
School Literacy Movement is a social movement with collaborative support of various elements. Efforts taken to realize the form of reading habits learners. This habit is done with a 15 minute reading activity (teachers read the book and school residents read inwardly, tailored to the context or target school). When reading habits are formed, it will then be directed to the development stage, and learning (accompanied by a bill based on the Curriculum 2013). Variations of activities can be a combination of receptive and productive skills development.
The School Literacy Movement has two goals, a general purpose and a specific purpose
To develop the character of the students through the culture of the school literacy ecosystem embodied in the School Literacy Movement so that they become lifelong learners.
- To develop a culture of literacy in schools.
- Increase the capacity of citizens and school environment to be literate.
- Make school as a fun and child-friendly learning park so that the school community can manage knowledge.
- Maintaining the continuity of learning by presenting a variety of reading books and accommodating various reading strategies.
According to Beers (2009), good practices in the school literacy movement emphasize the following principles.
The development of literacy goes according to a predictable stage of development.
The stage of child development in learning to read and write are related to the stage of development. Understanding the stage of learner literacy development can help schools to choose appropriate strategies for habituation and literacy learning according to their developmental needs.
A good literacy program is balanced
Schools implementing a balanced literacy program recognize that each learner has different needs. Therefore, the reading strategy and the type of texts being read need to be varied and adjusted to the level of education. A meaningful literacy program can be done by utilizing literature-rich reading materials, such as literary works for children and adolescents.
The literacy program integrates with the curriculum
The habituation and learning of literacy in schools is the responsibility of all teachers in all subjects because the learning of any subject requires language, especially reading and writing. Thus, teacher professional development in terms of literacy needs to be given to teachers of all subjects.
Reading and writing activities are done at any time
For example, 'writing a letter to the president' or 'reading for mother' are examples of meaningful literacy activities.
Literacy activities develop an oral culture
Strong literacy-based classes are expected to generate a variety of verbal activities in the form of discussion of books during classroom learning. This discussion also needs to open up the possibility of dissent in order that critical thinking skills can be honed. Learners need to learn to convey their feelings and opinions, listen to each other, and respect different views.
Literacy activities need to develop awareness of diversity
School residents need to appreciate the differences through literacy activities at school. Reading materials for learners need to reflect the richness of Indonesian culture so that they can be exposed to multicultural experiences.