Action Research Methods is a study in a business context that focuses on improving the quality of the organization and its performance. This method is often done by practitioners who analyze data to improve the quality of their practice. Classroom Action Research which we know in the world of education, also depart from the basic concept of this research method.
Action research can be done collectively or individually. Action research has the potential to create a relatively stable improvement in the place where the research is conducted. This gives researchers and policy makers new possibilities in an organization to reflect on how their organization is managed, find and test new ideas, methods, materials, and see how effective a new approach, feedback with other team members, make decisions about approach to be used in a team on evaluation of organizational governance.
Action Research Models
Kurt Lewin Model Action Research becomes the fundamental or basic reference of various action research models. The main concept of action research according to Kurt Lewin consists of four components, namely: (1) Planning or planning, (2) Action or acting, (3) Observation or observing, (4) reflection or reflecting. The relationship between these four components is viewed as one cycle.
Meanwhile, the Kemmis and Taggart Model is the development of the basic concept introduced by Kurt. It's just that the acting and observing components are made into one unity because they are inseparable actions, occurring at the same time. For more details, see the schematic in the image below.
Examples of Action Research
In understanding action research, it would be easier if through an example. A simple example of action research or action research is as follows:
A new mechanic working in a national automotive company often gets a reprimand from the boss because the resume of his work many times does not pass the QC (Quality Control) stage. The mechanic wants to improve its performance, by first identifying its flaws by identifying the potential errors and asking co-workers against any deficiencies or errors. Based on the information obtained by these mechanics then look for the right solution by consulting with colleagues, adding knowledge by reading related books, continue to hone skills and others. Furthermore, the mechanic must determine some action steps to overcome and improve its ability (planning). Then, the mechanic must implement the planned steps in several work (actions). During the performance improvement, the mechanic should always observe the results of his own work and discuss it with colleagues who are considered qualified as well as the QC (observation). And next the mechanic must do the analysis of the results of the action program he has planned (reflection). If successful he continues, if still less successful means he must find another way or strategy.
Some obstacles in doing Action Research / Action Research
The difficulty in conducting action research is usually caused by the lack of observable influence, so there is no control to make other things outside the program unchanged. Another difficulty is that in the implementation of action research requires the existence of cooperation of an organization then sometimes there is difficulty in terms of dependence of the researcher on the implementer. In general, the research method to be chosen by a researcher depends on the area or area to be studied, the situation, as well as the condition of the research as well as the desired end result.
Action Research in the Field of Education
Classroom action research is a practical application of action research conducted by teachers in the classroom by using a specific action research model (Kurt Lewin model, Kemmis or Taggart) in order to improve its performance as a teacher so that student learning outcomes to be better.
For teachers, doing classroom action research is useful for improving their quality in teaching and student learning outcomes. Teachers can see, feel, and reflect on whether the learning process has been effective or not. In addition, teachers who want to do action research is a teacher who has a plus because it is an indication that he has a soul as a researcher who has the will to improve and innovate learning.