Educational Psychology is one branch of psychology that specifically examines the behavior of individuals in the context of educational activities. Educational Psychology studies, examines, and discusses all human behavior involved in the educational process. The goal to be achieved by educational psychology is to find facts, generalizations, and psychological theories related to the world of education through certain scientific methods in order to achieve the effectiveness of the process.
Education is an activity that involves many people, ie students, teachers, community, and also parents. But in the context of educational psychology, the problem is more focused on students. Because essentially education is a service for students.
There are many experts who define Educational Psychology as a branch of psychology in general. Muhibin Shah defines Educational Psychology as a branch of psychology whose scope of discussion deals with child psychology in the context of education. This definition focuses on the child as an object as well as the subject of education that has a soul and innate potentials in which education is in charge of developing and actualizing these things.
Shah's definition above also toughen idea that educational psychology is one of the branches of psychology which research focuses on issues related to the growth and development of the child physically and mentally, in which the child growth and mental development is related to process and learning outcomes.
Another definition is proposed by Elliot et al. Who defines educational psychology as the implementation of psychological theories in order to learn the process and learning outcomes, the development of learners, motivation, way of teaching, and various problems in education. Sumadi Suryabrata said that educational psychology is a knowledge about students in the context of education is reviewed with the science of psychology. While Whiterington states that educational psychology is a systematic study of the processes and factors related to education.
Based on the denomination of educational psychology above, it can be concluded that psychology is a sub-discussion of general psychology. If psychology is like a tree, then the psychology of education is like one branch of the tree. Why one? Because in addition to educational psychology, there are many other branches of psychology, such as developmental psychology, organizational industry psychology, social psychology, personality psychology, Islamic psychology, and others.
The Scope of the Study of Educational Psychology at least includes the following things:
- The extent to which innate and environmental factors affect the learning process
- The properties of the learning process
- The relationship between the level of maturity with learning readiness.
- At each stage of development, children have different characteristics.
- The significance of education to individual differences in the speed and limitations of learning
- Changes in the soul that occurs during the learning process
- The relationship between teaching procedures and learning outcomes.
- Already understood in the world of education.
Teachers understanding about educational psychology is very important, because teachers are the spearhead in the implementation of the educational process. In this case, the teacher acts as an observer who studies the psychological phenomena in the protégé shown through their outward deeds during each period of development (prenatal, early, adolescent, etc.), so that the teacher can draw conclusions or formulate a theory that later can be applied learning process mengjar for learning objectives can be achieved maximally.
In perspective of educational psychology, children are assumed as educational subjects with physical and psychological dimensions (soul, spirit). As stated in the law of tempo and rhythm of development, that each child experiences a different rate of development. There is a balance between physical and psychological development, there is a physical development faster than psychological development, there is also a psychological development more quickly than the physical maturity. It is these things that teachers need to know about their students. Each child has a unique character, so in the learning process there needs to be a variety of methods and approach appropriate to the character.