In the world of education, we are familiar with some educational theories. From these theories, we can know which theory is used as the basis for the implementation and development of education in various models of educational institutions that are around us. For every institution or even an educational system is definitely inclined to one or a combination of educational theories. This article will discuss educational theories that include classical education theory, interactional education theory, and personal education theory.
1. Classical Education Theory
Did you know 'Pesantren" or islamic boarding school education system in Indonesia? That is one example of an educational institution that implements classical education theory. As we know, the islamic boarding school use a curriculum (in the material sense) derived from the classic books of the mediaeval islamic scientist. In other words, what constitutes the traditions and treasures of classical Islamic scholar is regarded as something final and must be preserved, safeguarded, and passed down from generation to generation.
This is suitable with the theory of classical education where the purpose of education is directed to maintain, preserve, and pass on the heritage of the past tradition. Implementation of classical education theory in the learning process is characterized by the central role of teachers. Teachers are considered as the dominant source of knowledge, while students tend to be passive and take for granted the material presented by the teacher. Classical education theory is based on the philosophy of education of existentialism, perennialism, and essentialism.
2. Personal Education Theory
Personal education theory is characterized by the assumption that every human being is born with different potentials from one another, just like the concept of fitrah in Islamic education. In this theory, education is a means to actualize every potential possessed by each learner. Actualization is based on the interests and needs of learners. So, learners who become the main subject in the process of implementation of education. While the teacher only acts as a mentor, motivator, and facilitator for the process of self-actualization of the learners.
Personal education theory engender the progressive education with the main character is John Dewey. He makes the experience appropriate to the interests and needs of learners as learning materials. Learners are emphasized to reflect on their experiences related to their interests and needs so that the results of reflection are useful in their lives.
3. Interactional Education Theory
This theory departs from the basic assumptions of humans are social beings who in their life always cooperate and interact with other human beings. The core idea is interaction. Interaction between teachers with learners, learners with learning materials, and learners with social environment.
According to the theory of interactional education, learning is an activity that is not just a matter of fact, but also examine, understand, and interpret the facts using a thorough perspective of all aspects of life.
The philosophy of social reconstruction becomes the basis of this interactional education theory. This also means that the purpose of education is to prepare learners to be ready and able to deal with all kinds of social problems that occur as well as have the ability to work together to find solutions.